What is a transit of the best site cialis 100mg Venus?

When Venus passes directly between earth and buy tramadol without prescription the sun, we see the distant planet as a small dot gliding slowly across the buy levitra from china face of the sun.  Historically, this rare alignment is how we measured the size of our solar system.  The view is like a front row seat to the transit method, by which we find planets around distant stars.

When is it?

The last transit of Venus occurred June 5-6, 2012.  The next pair of Sun-Venus-Earth alignments will be December 2117 and 2125.  Look for a transit of Mercury in 2016.

What happened in 2012?

People across the globe witnessed and celebrated science in action. Observing parties, public outreach, live webcasts, art exhibits, historic displays, music , and more set the 2012 transit of Venus apart as a collective science experience. 

Transit of Venus at sunset

See A Community Celebrates for a summary of the 2012 Transit of Venus from Michiana.

Transit of Venus Story

Rare Alignment

Sun, Venus, and earth align for transit of Venus
A transit of Venus occurs when Venus passes directly between the sun and earth.  This alignment is rare, coming in pairs that are eight years apart but separated by over a century.  The most recent transits of Venus were a thrilling sight in June 2004 and 2012, with the next transit of Venus pair occurring in December 2117 and 2125. 

Global Expeditions

Parallax angle from two locations
Observers from two locations on discount cialis cannada earth see two distinct paths (red and blue) of Venus across the sun.  The slight difference in times Venus takes, moving from edge to only today viagra cheap canada edge, can mathematically unlock the best viagra soft prices distance from earth to the sun, and thus the size of our solar system.  For 17th & 18th century transits, intrepid explorers set out to answer a leading question of mankind.  Not all of them made the voyage back home.

Mystery of http://www.investordaily.com.au/how-much-viagra "Black Drop"

Simulated black drop smearJust before or after the circular black dot of Venus seems to touch the edge of the sun, a peculiar "black drop effect" sometimes occurs between the contact points.  A ligament of darkness smears the juncture of Venus and the sun.  You can see a similar anomaly if you almost pinch your thumb and forefinger together.  Just before you sense contact, a black feature spans your two digits.

Transits Lead the Hunt

Kepler mission's field of view near Summer Triangle
Once again, transits are on the only today order cheap cialis leading edge of new discoveries.  The NASA Kepler mission and others are using the transit method to find habitable planets around distant stars.  The Kepler spacecraft monitors over 150,000 stars, looking for periodic dips in their light curves which reveal the presence of companion planets.  You, too, can join this quest for new worlds. 

4-Minute Summary

Video: the Transit of Venus
Animation and panaceahealthsolutions.com visual effects by Patrick McPike.

Get Your Gear

Three t-shirt designs

Three designs of T-shirts at reduced price from supporters of buy viagra online us Transit of Venus outreach efforts.

Midwest Treasure: TROVE

Midwest Treasure: TROVE
Art exhibits, family activities, a bus tour, historic artifacts, lectures, Logo for TROVE Adventurewebcasts, telescope viewing, and more complemented the visual spectacle near the Michigan-Indiana border.  This hub of 2012 transit of Venus activity in Michiana celebrated the us drugstore pharmacy viagra math, science, history, and art of the celestial phenomenon.

Safely See the Sun

Rear projection screen with transiting Venus
Protect your eyes.  There are several safe ways to observe the sun. 
  • Solar filtered telescope
  • Disposable "eclipse shades"
  • Rear projection screen
    (Build a Sun Funnel, above)
  • Live webcast
  • More

Recommended Links

Logo for Transit of Venus Project

Logo for NASA's Sun-Earth Day 2012

Logo for Facebook Group

Twitter logo

YouTube features transit of Venus videos

Black Drop Effect Bistro Coffee

Black Drop Effect Coffee from Victorian Pantry, Granger, INVictorian Pantry in Granger, IN, unveiled Black Drop Effect Bistro Coffee, its contribution to cialis from canada the 2012 transit of Venus celebration. The very dark coffee pays homage to the famous black drop effect, a visual anomaly when circular Venus appears to elongate like a drop when it is near the inner edge of the sun.  Astronomers attempting to gauge the instant when Venus just "touches" the solar limb have been confounded for centuries by this ill-timed quirk. 

Logo for Black Drop Effect Bistro CoffeeChef and restaurant owner Steve Stogdill roasted Black Drop Effect Bistro Coffee to be "characterized by high grade beans, heavy body, and low acid with a special finish on your palate." Living up to its name, the coffee is very dark, yet Stogdill notes, "Dark coffee does not need to be bitter, and this proves that." 

In 1999 the TRACE spacecraft imaged a transit of Mercury, from which astronomers determined the black drop effect is not a function of atmosphere but more a function of the telescope optics and of solar limb darkening. See the black drop effect FAQ.

The Black Drop Effect Bistro Coffee label pays tribute to visit web site levitra 10mg the stained glass window of St. Michael's Church in Hoole, England, where Jeremiah Horrocks first recorded a transit of Venus in 1639.  In subsequent centuries the church has commemorated the historic sighting and Horrock's character with architectural details such as the stained glass windows.  Each pane is filled with an image related to the transit of Venus.  The text within the banner, Come Sip or Ship, invites patrons to enjoy the cheap tramadol overnight coffee at Victorian Pantry or to purchase the coffee and have it shipped. 

An 11-ounce foil pouch of coffee, whether whole bean or ground, costs $11.99 USD plus shipping.  To place an order, email Chef Steve at CLOAKING .  


Exclusive Tour of levitra to buy Transit Highlights

Exclusive 2012 Transit of Venus TourLooking to maximize your transit of Venus experience in the United States?  Then get a cushy seat on the Transit of Venus Tour of highlights in Indiana and Michigan on June 5, 2012. Not only will the tour complement telescope time during three hours of the solar spectacle's visibility, it also is a stand-alone winner if cloudy weather prevails that afternoon.  The June 5 itinerary includes the following attractions:
  • Sunset over Lake Michigan with sailboatFull dome digital video about the transit of Venus.
  • Personal introduction to Transit of Venus and safe viewing techniques.
  • Transit of Venus in Pastel art exhibit.
  • Historical artifacts on display, with emphasis on USNO expedition photographer from Indiana.
  • Live program at Notre Dame Digital Visualization Theater.
  • NASA webcast from Hawaii.
  • Telescope observing of first and second contacts of Venus against the sun.
  • Sunset with the transit underway, while overlooking beautiful Lake Michigan.
  • TROVE Art Exhibit
  • Venusian ale at The Livery microbrewery
  • Transit of Venus send-off party with live music and discount generic viagra camaraderie of ToV enthusiasts.
  • Round-trip transportation on exclusive motor coach.
Tour is limited to 36 adventurers, and seats are filling up.  The trip includes box lunch, solar shades, gratuities, Signal Travel escort, and some transit of Venus goodies.  Cost is $80.00 per person, with an early bird special if you book by May 1, 2012.  See details and sign up now at http://www.signaltravel.com/groups/pdf/venus2012.pdf.  You may also contact Signal Travel at 1-800-811-1522 or visit http://www.signaltravel.com/groups/.


Eye Safety Warning

Fine Print:

Viewing the sun without proper equipment and/or techniques can result in serious eye injury and blindness.  The solar observing descriptions and comments listed in this website are not an endorsement of any particular technique or product.  Observers are responsible for their own eye safety.  This website accepts no responsibility for the the best site levitra generic brand conduct of others in viewing the sun.

For definitive advise on observing the sun, see Viewing the Transit & Eye Safety, by Dr. B. Ralph Chou, at http://www.transitofvenus.org/june2012/eye-safety/280-viewing-the-transit-eye-safety.

"It is never safe to the best choice levitra canada prescription look at the sun without proper eye protection.  No filter should be used with an optical device (e.g. binoculars, telescope, camera) unless that filter has been specifically designed for that purpose and is mounted at the front end (i.e., end towards the Sun). Unsafe filters include all color film, black-and-white film that contains no silver, photographic negatives with images on them (x-rays and snapshots), smoked glass, sunglasses (single or multiple pairs), photographic neutral density filters and polarizing filters, computer disk media. Most of robert-alonso-photos.com these transmit high levels of invisible infrared radiation which can cause a thermal retinal burn.  The fact that the Sun appears dim, or that you feel no discomfort when looking at the Sun through the filter, is no guarantee that your eyes are safe.  A person with eye damage from improper viewing may not notice the http://nassmc.org/levitra-buying-online damage until hours later."

For observers who refuse to view the sun safely--Leader Dogs for the Blind in Rochester, Michigan.


TROVE Adventure

Join the Hunt for Treasure!

Treasure Hunt poster with roundel to appear in windows of participating businessesCollect 10 keywords and just try! viagra online shop earn solar shades for your whole family!

[Note: though the opportunity to get free solar shades ended May 31, artifacts remain on display until after the June 5 transit of Venus.  See TROVE Adventure map for the list of sites.]

The Transit of Venus (TROVE) Adventure is a treasure hunt to learn about the June 5 phenomenon and to be rewarded with protective eyewear that allows you to view safely the solar spectacle. Each participating site has a keyword and an exhibit with information relating to the Transit of Venus. Visit at least ten sites and collect the keywords. Answer as many questions as you can from the information at those sites. Once you finish, bring your list of answers and keywords to http://sfachc.org/viagra-without-prescription-online one of the three drop-off sites below by Thursday, May 31, to receive solar shades for your family. 

Notre Dame Community Relations
217 South Michigan Street
South Bend, IN 46601

Victorian Pantry
226 West Cleveland Road
Granger, IN 46530

Glance Eyewear Gallery
7220 Heritage Square Drive, Ste. 560
Granger, IN 46530

View TROVE Adventure in a larger map with list of sites

Teresa Wright of MutualBank holds a humorous 19th century illustration displayed at MutualBank Plaza for the TROVE Adventure.Here are the http://www.aco.ca/levitra-non-prescription treasure hunting tools you need to find Keywords at each site:
  1. Map of the TROVE Adventure treasure hunting grounds in Michiana:
  2. List of participating TROVE Adventure sites with space for you to write each Keyword.
  3. List of questions that can be answered from clues at the sites.
Good luck, treasure seekers!


Can I Use Welding Glass to View the Sun?

Welder's hood with #14 glassSee the video at http://youtu.be/4RGr9FcBrSM for definitive eye safety when viewing the sun.

Dr. B. Ralph Chou, author of
Viewing the Transit & Eye Safety, notes a shade number 14 welder's glass provides suitable protection. However, this type of plaisirdecreer.be glass is becoming less readily available and is now a special order item.  Importantly, polycarbonate welding filters now on the market are not sufficient unless they have gold coating.  Polycarbonate filters without gold coating protect from high levels of visible light but are highly transparent of infrared.

It is imperative that the welding hood houses a #14 or darker glass filter.  Do not view through any welding glass if you do not know or cannot discern its shade number.  Be advised that welders typically use glass with a shade much less than the necessary #14.  Just because the hood makes the sun somewhat more tolerable to see does not mean the welding glass is of the proper kind. 

Only the sun is visible through #14 welding glassWelding hood glass that is less than #14 shade shows more than just the sun.The view through a
proper #14 welding glass (left) shows only the sun, which will appear green. The surrounding landscape is not visible.

A welding glass that is less than shade #14 allows too much light to pass.  In the picture at right, an insufficient welding glass permits so much light to pass through that the landscape can be seen.  This view is not safe.

Read more: Can I Use Welding Glass to View the Sun?



Google's Zeitgeist feature rated the 2004 Transit of Venus as the world's #1 Most Popular Event for all of June 2004!  The 2012 transit of Venus is the last one in the 21st century--not seen again until 2117.  You don't want to miss this rare dance of the planets!

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